Spelling correction among Dysgraphic people, differences between handwriting to keyboarding typing,

On 24 Jun., 2019

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Spelling correction among Dysgraphic people, differences between handwriting to keyboarding typing,

The ability to communicate through written language is a fundamental component within people expression methods and is crucial to know how to use it during all phases of life properly. Disorders in that area are usually noticeable through a combination of phenomenons, such as the capability to shape letter in their right form, spell them correctly, develop understood signature style and with unclear expression in written text (DSMIV – American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Researchers eventually described all the symptoms mentioned above under the term Dysgraphia- one highly broad definition to explain the repeated and explicit difficulty of a person to express in handwriting (Deuel, 2001).

Overall, individual with distinctive learning difficulties usually express low self-esteem resulted by ongoing compared to the flourishing surroundings (Festinger, 1954), challenge to take part in community life (Donegan & Potts, 1988), alongside actual effort to maintain positive social figure in those public activities (Abraham, 1989; Chappell, 1992; Edgerton, 1967; Szivos-Bach, 1993). Combining those limitations assist within the creation of astigmatic mindset in the public eye regarding people with learning difficulties (Goffman, 1963). Though there has been a change in perception during the last few decades, some other evidence implies that the stigma is still relevant. One study examines the extended sense of shame between young students with learning difficulties with low self-esteem, in observed that there is a correlation among them (Szivos-Bach, 1993). Low self-esteem is also correlated to the higher possibility of depression (Brown & Harris, 1978; Brown, Andrews, Harris, Adler, & Bridge, 1986). Hence, it is crucial to identify people with learning difficulties and continuously improve their self-esteem levels.

To understand the pattern of written language difficulties, an underlying of the neuroanatomical foundations have to properly presented (Tomasino, Marin, Maieron, D’Agostini, Fabbro, Skrap & Luzzatti, 2015). Not to withdraw the importance of writing as a critical skill for humans, but, it is essential to understand the connection between speaking, reading, and writing development as a way to explain the whole picture of communication systems in young people. The ability to write coherently lies upon previous knowledge of the word and the familiarity with the language grammatical structure (Carlson, 2012). Hence, it is common to witness difficulty in oral expression alongside symptoms of Dysgraphia. It has been found by researchers that the lexical-semantic route combined with the sub-word-level routine are some of the leading neurological structures required to act as a person try to spell a word. The left inferior temporal, middle and superior temporal inferior temporal, angular, and supramarginal gyri, are all brain areas associated with the appearance of Dysgraphia as well (Beauvois & Derouesn e, 1981; Philipose et al., 2007; Rapcsak & Beeson, 2004; Roeltgen & Heilman, 1984; Shallice, 1981; Tsapkini & Rapp, 2010). During a neuroimaging study of spelling, these areas showed signs of activity as the subject tried to spell a specific word and took a significant part in the formation of the spelt word. As part of another research, fMRI examine showed that tasks in reading and writing provoked action in similar brain structures (Purcell, Napoliello, et al., 2011; Rapp & Dufor, 2011; Rapp & Lipka, 2011). Therefore, the connection between reading and writing skills is crucial to understand the phenomenon of writing difficulties, it is, in fact, the previous developmental step. Recognition of a single word while reading it, open the door to translating it to a written one. As a person demonstrate reading issues, henceforth, the neurological structures in his brain are most likely due to face writing problems.

Production of written language demands several cognitive processes, not necessarily identify with writing, all at once reacting to the given mission. Auditory analysis, representation of concepts and word meaning, alongside the motoric expression of the phrase, are all at once activated and allows the person to write the text (Rapp et al., 2015). Production of written language also involves orthographic long-term memory, in the meaning of pulling familiar word image from memory; Altogether, identification of letters pattern in the expression through an abstract form, and not via name or shape of them (Fischer-Baum & Rapp, 2014). Meanwhile, the phonological punctuation also supports accurate spelling through external validation of the sound of the word. Thus, words that sound similar to the letter sound- such as “camp” the phonological-orthographic brain structure will find it accessible to spell, and in less possible to witness spelling mistakes. In contrast, words that the phonological context is unclear- “sauce”, for example, are at higher risk to be spelt with errors (Rapp et al., 2015).

As general interest in these issues has continued, both dysgraphia and written language production have not been deeply searched, especially not within the specific context of long-term memory and working memory function. Further search in the different writing patterns, handwriting and keyboard typing, can prove access to the model of spelling mistakes. Consequently, determine which writing system helps to Dysgraphic people come over the wrong pattern and automatically correct the spelling.

In this research, the connection between the physical expression of the written word- whether by handwriting or computer typing, will be compared to examine which method would be more useful to apply while facing Dysgraphia. If the ability to identify and understand the mistake con improve because of typing the word or the motoric action of handwriting is still a preferred method to teach spelling?

The purpose of this experiment is to find the neurological source of the autocorrection mechanism in people with Dysgraphic symptoms, and the preferred approach to evoke it to action when a writing mistake occurs. Encourage reaction of the phonological and orthographical systems will happen as the exam will write words in several formats- listen to, read and through personal memory. While writing the review will be asked to find and correct spelling mistakes individually. Then an fMRI test will assist in determining the specific area involved.

 

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